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“It is known that there are an infinite number of worlds, simply because there is an infinite amount of space for them to be in. However, not every one of them is inhabited. Therefore, there must be a finite number of inhabited worlds.

Any finite number divided by infinity is as near to nothing as makes no odds, so the average population of all the planets in the universe can be said to be zero. From this it follows that the population of the whole universe is also zero, and that any people you may meet from time to time are merely the products of a deranged imagination.”– The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, Douglas Adams

If there's one thing mathematicians have a love-hate relationship with, it has to be *infinity*. It's the ultimate tease: it beckons us to come closer, but never allows us anywhere near it. No matter how far we travel to impress it, infinity remains disinterested, equally distant from everything: infinitely far!

$$ 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < … < \infty $$

Yet infinity is not just desirable, it is absolutely necessary. All over mathematics, we find problems for which no finite amount of steps will help resolve them. Without infinity, we wouldn't have real numbers, for starters. That's a problem: our circles aren't round anymore (no $ π $ and $ \tau $) and our exponentials stop growing right (no $ e $). We can throw out all of our triangles too: most of their sides have exploded.

A steel railroad bridge with a 1200 ton counter-weight.

Completed in 1910. Source: Library of Congress.

We like infinity because it helps avoid all that. In fact even when things are not infinite, we often prefer to pretend they are—we do geometry in infinitely big planes, because then we don't have to care about where the edges are.

Now, suppose we want to analyze a steel beam, because we're trying to figure out if our proposed bridge will stay up. If we want to model reality accurately, that means simulating each individual particle, every atom in the beam. Each has its own place and pushes and pulls on others nearby.

But even just $ 40 $ grams of pure iron contains $ 4.31 \cdot 10^{23} $ atoms. That's an inordinate amount of things to keep track of for just 1 teaspoon of iron.

Instead, we pretend the steel is solid throughout. Rather than being composed of atoms with gaps in between, it's made of some unknown, filled in material with a certain density, expressed e.g. as *grams per cubic centimetre*. Given any shape, we can determine its volume, and hence its total mass, and go from there. That's much simpler than counting and keeping track of individual atoms, right?

Unfortunately, that's not quite true.

Like all choices in mathematics, this one has consequences we cannot avoid. Our beam's density is *mass per volume*. Individual points in space have zero volume. That would mean that at any given point inside the beam, the amount of mass there is $ 0 $. How can a beam that is entirely composed of nothing be solid and have a non-zero mass?

*Bam! No more iron anywhere.*

While Douglas Adams was being deliberately obtuse, there's a kernel of truth there, which is a genuine paradox: what exactly is the mass of every atom in our situation?

To make our beam solid and continuous, we had to shrink every atom down to an infinitely small point. To compensate, we had to create infinitely many of them. Dividing the finite mass of the beam between an infinite amount of atoms should result in $ 0 $ mass per atom. Yet all these masses still have to add up to the total mass of the beam. This suggests $ 0 + 0 + 0 + … > 0 $, which seems impossible.

If the mass of every atom were not $ 0 $, and we have infinitely many points inside the beam, then the total mass is infinity times the atomic mass $ m $. Yet the total mass is finite. This suggests $ m + m + m + … < \infty $, which also doesn't seem right.

It seems whatever this number $ m $ is, it can't be $ 0 $ and can't be non-zero. It's definitely not infinite, we only had a finite mass to begin with. It's starting to sound like we'll have to invent a whole new set of numbers again to even find it.

That's effectively what Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz set in motion at the end of the 17th century, when they both discovered calculus independently. It was without a doubt the most important discovery in mathematics and resulted in formal solutions to many problems that were previously unsolvable— our entire understanding of physics has relied on it since. Yet it took until the late 19th century for the works of Augustin Cauchy and Karl Weierstrass to pop up, which formalized the required theory of *convergence*. This allows us to describe exactly how differences can shrink down to nothing as you approach infinity. Even that wasn't enough: it was only in the 1960s when the idea of infinitesimals as fully functioning numbers—the hyperreal numbers—was finally proven to be consistent enough by Abraham Robinson.

But it goes back much further. Ancient mathematicians were aware of problems of infinity, and used many ingenious ways to approach it. For example, $ π $ was found by considering circles to be infinite-sided polygons. Archimedes' work is likely the earliest use of *indivisibles*, using them to imagine tiny mechanical levers and find a shape's center of mass. He's better known for running naked through the streets shouting Eureka! though.

That it took so long shows that this is not an easy problem. The proofs involved are elaborate and meticulous, all the way back. They have to be, in order to nail down something as tricky as infinity. As a result, students generally learn calculus through the simplified methods of Newton and Leibniz, rather than the most mathematically correct interpretation. We're taught to mix notations from 4 different centuries together, and everyone's just supposed to connect the dots on their own. Except the trail of important questions along the way is now overgrown with jungle.

Still, it shows that even if we don't understand the whole picture, we can get a lot done. This article is in no way a formal introduction to infinitesimals. Rather, it's a demonstration of why we might need them.

What is happening when we shrink atoms down to points? Why does it make shapes solid yet seemingly hollow? Is it ever meaningful to write $ x = \infty $? Is there only one infinity, or are there many different kinds?

To answer that, we first have to go back to even simpler times, to Ancient Greece, and start with the works of Zeno.

Zeno of Elea was one of the first mathematicians to pose these sorts of questions, effectively trolling mathematics for the next two millennia. He lived in the 5th century BC in southern Italy, although only second-hand references survive. In his series of paradoxes, he examines the nature of equality, distance, continuity, of time itself.

Because it's the ancient times, our mathematical knowledge is limited. We know about zero, but we're still struggling with the idea of nothing. We've run into negative numbers, but they're clearly absurd and imaginary, unlike the positive numbers we find in geometry. We also know about fractions and ratios, but square roots still confuse us, even though our temples stay up.

Limits are the first tool in our belt for tackling infinity. Given a sequence described by countable steps, we can attempt to extend it not just to the end of the world, but literally forever. If this works we end up with a finite value. If not, the limit is undefined. A limit can be equal to $ \infty $, but that's just shorthand for *the sequence has no upper bound*. Negative infinity means no lower bound.

Until now we've only encountered fractions, that is, *rational numbers*. Each of our sums was made of fractions. The limit, if it existed, was also a rational number. We don't know whether this was just a coincidence.

It might seem implausible that a sequence of numbers that is 100% rational and converges, can approach a limit that isn't rational at all. Yet we've already seen similar discrepancies. In our first sequence, every partial sum was *less than* $ 1 $. Meanwhile the limit of the sum was *equal to* $ 1 $. Clearly, the limit does not have to share all the properties of its originating sequence.

We also haven't solved our original problem: we've only chopped things up into infinitely many *finite pieces*. How do we get to *infinitely small pieces*? To answer that, we need to go looking for *continuity*.

Generally, continuity is defined by what it is and what its properties are: a noticeable lack of holes, and no paradoxical values. But that's putting the cart before the horse. First, we have to show which holes we're trying to plug.

REXML could not parse this XML/HTML: <div class="wide slideshow full"> <div class="iframe c"> <iframe src="/files/infinity-and-beyond/mb-5-continuity.html" class="mathbox paged autosize" height="320"></iframe> </div> <div class="steps"> <div class="step"> <p>Let's imagine the <em>rational numbers</em>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>Actually, hold on. Is this really a line? The integers certainly weren't connected.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">Rather than assume anything, we're going to attempt to visualize all the rational numbers. We'll start with the <span class="blue">numbers between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $</span>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra bottom"><big>$$ \class{blue}{\frac{0 + 1}{2}} $$</big></div> <p class="math">Between any two numbers, we can find a new number in between: their average. This leads to $ \frac{1}{2} $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra bottom"><big>$$ \frac{a + b}{2} $$</big></div> <p>By repeatedly taking averages, we keep finding new numbers, filling up the interval.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>If we separate out every step, we get a <em>binary tree</em>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">You can think of this as a map of all the fractions of $ 2^n $. Given any such fraction, say <big>$ \frac{13}{32} = \frac{13}{2^5} $</big>, there is a unique path of lefts and rights that leads directly to it. At least, as long as it lies between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> Note that the graph resembles a fractal and that the distance to the top edge is divided in half with every step. But we only ever explore a finite amount of steps. Therefor, we are not taking a limit and we'll never actually touch the edge. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra left" data-hold="1">$$ \frac{2 \cdot a + b}{3} $$</div> <div class="extra right" data-hold="1">$$ \frac{a + 2 \cdot b}{3} $$</div> <p class="math">But we can take thirds as well, leading to fractions with a power of $ 3^n $ in their denominator.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">As some numbers can be reached in multiple ways, we can eliminate some lines, and end up with this graph, where every number sprouts into a three-way, <em>ternary tree</em>. Again, we have a map that gives us a unique path to any fraction of $ 3^n $ in this range, like <big>$ \frac{11}{27} = \frac{11}{3^3} $</big>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra"> $$ \frac{21}{60} = \frac{21}{2^2 \cdot 3 \cdot 5} $$ </div> <p class="math">Because we can do this for any denominator, we can define a way to get to any rational number in a finite amount of steps. Take for example <big>$ \frac{21}{60} $</big>. We decompose its denominator into prime numbers and begin with $ 0 $ and $ 1 $ again.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra top edge hold3"> <small><small> $$ \frac{21}{60} = \frac{21}{2^2 \cdot 3 \cdot 5} $$ </small></small> </div> <p class="math">There is a division of $ 2^2 $, so we do two binary splits. This time, I'm repeating the previously found numbers so you can see the regular divisions more clearly. We get <span class="green">quarters</span>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">The next factor is $ 3 $ so we divide into thirds once. We now have <span class="gold">twelfths</span>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">For the last division we chop into fifths and get <span class="orangered">sixtieths</span>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">$ \frac{21}{60} $ is now the <span class="orangered">21st number from the left</span>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">But this means we've found a clear way to visualize <em>all</em> the rational numbers between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $: it's all the numbers we can reach by applying a finite number of binary (2), ternary (3), quinary (5) etc. divisions, for any denominator. So there's always a finite <em>gap</em> between any two rational numbers, even though there are infinitely many of them.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>The rational numbers are <em>not continuous</em>. Therefor, it is more accurate to picture them as a set of tick marks than a connected number line.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">To find continuity then, we need to revisit one of our earlier trees. We'll pick the binary one.<br />While every fork goes two ways, we actually have a third choice at every step: we can choose to stop. That's how we get a finite path to a whole fraction of $ 2^n $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>But what if we never stop? We have to apply a limit: we try to spot a pattern and try to <span class="green">fast-forward it</span>. Note that by halving each step vertically on the graph, we've actually <em>linearized</em> each approach into a straight line which ends. Now we can <em>take limits visually</em> just by intersecting lines with the top edge.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">Right away we can spot two convergent limits: by always choosing either the <span class="orangered">left</span> or the <span class="green">right</span> branch, we end up at respectively $ 0 $ and $ 1 $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"><span class="orangered">These</span> <span class="green">two</span> sequences both converge to $ \frac{1}{2} $. It seems that 'at infinity steps', the graph meets up with itself in the middle.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">But the graph is now a true fractal. So the same convergence can be found here. In fact, the graph meets up with itself anywhere there is a multiple of <big>$ \frac{1}{2^n} $</big>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">That's pretty neat: now we can eliminate the option of stopping altogether. Instead of ending at $ \frac{5}{16} $, we can simply take <span class="purple">one additional step in either direction, followed by infinitely many opposite steps</span>. Now we're <em>only</em> considering paths that are infinitely long.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">But if this graph only leads to fractions of $ 2^n $, then there must be gaps between them. In the limit, the distance between any two adjacent numbers in the graph shrinks down to <em>exactly</em> $ 0 $, which suggests there are no gaps. This infinite version of the binary tree must lead to a lot more numbers than we might think.<br /> Suppose we take a path of <span class="orangered">alternating left and right steps</span>, and extend it forever. Where do we end up?</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>We can apply the same principle of an <span class="gold">upper and lower bound</span>, but now we're approaching from both sides at once. Thanks to our linearization trick, the entire sequence fits snugly inside a triangle.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If we zoom into the convergence at infinity, we actually end up at $ \class{orangered}{\frac{2}{3}} $.<br /> Somehow we've managed to coax a fraction of $ 3 $ out of a perfectly regular <em>binary</em> tree.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If we <span class="orangered">alternate two lefts with one right</span>, we can end up at $ \class{orangered}{\frac{4}{7}} $. This is remarkable: when we tried to visualize all the rational numbers by combining all kinds of divisions, we were overthinking it. We only needed to take <em>binary divisions</em> and repeat them infinitely with a <em>limit</em>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>Every single rational number can then be found by taking a finite amount of steps to get to a certain point, and then settling into a <em>repeating pattern of lefts and/or rights</em> all the way to infinity.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If we can find numbers between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $ this way, we can apply the exact same principle to the range $ 1 $ to $ 2 $. So we can connect two of these graphs into a single graph with its tip at $ 1 $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">But we can repeat it as much as we like. The full graph is not just infinitely divided, but infinitely big, in that no finite box can contain it. That means it leads to <em>every single positive rational number</em>. We can start anywhere we like. Is your mind blown yet?</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">No? Ok. But if this works for positives, we can build a similar graph for the negatives just by mirroring it. So we now have a map of the entire rational number set. All we need to do is take <em>infinite paths that settle into a repeating pattern</em> from either a positive or a negative starting point. When we do, we find every such path leads to a rational number.<br /> So any rational number can be found by taking an infinite stroll on one of <em>two</em> infinite binary trees.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">Wait, did I say two infinite trees? Sorry, I meant <em>one</em> infinitely big tree.<br />See, if we repeatedly scale up a <span class="green">fractal binary tree</span> and apply a limit to that, we end up with almost exactly the same thing. Only this time, the two downward diagonals always eventually fold back towards $ 0 $. This creates a path of <em>infinity + 1</em> steps downward. While that might not be very practical, it suggests you can ride out to the restaurant at the end of the universe, have dinner, and take a single step to get back home.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">Is it math, or visual poetry? It's time to bring this fellatio of the mind to its inevitable climax.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra hold2 bottom left" data-align-x=".4" data-align-y=".8">$ \class{blue}{0} $</div> <div class="extra hold2 bottom right" data-align-x=".4" data-align-y=".8">$ \class{green}{1} $</div> <div class="extra hold2 left top" data-align-x="1.0" data-align-y="0.25">$ \class{blue}{0} $</div> <div class="extra hold2 left top" data-align-x=".6" data-align-y="0.25">$ \class{green}{1} $</div> <div class="extra hold2 right top" data-align-x=".6" data-align-y="0.25">$ \class{blue}{0} $</div> <div class="extra hold2 right top" data-align-x="1.0" data-align-y="0.25">$ \class{green}{1} $</div> <p class="math">You may wonder, if this map is so amazing, how did we ever do without?<br /> Let's label our branches. If we go left, we call it $ 0 $. If we go right, we call it $ 1 $.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra"> $$ \frac{5}{3} = \class{green}{11}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{2pt}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{2pt}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0}… $$ </div> <p class="math">We can then identify any number by writing out the infinite path that leads there as a sequence of ones and zeroes—bits.<br /><br />But you already knew that.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra"> $$ \frac{5}{3} = \class{green}{1}.\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{2pt}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{2pt}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0}…_2 $$ </div> <p class="math">See we've just rediscovered the binary number system. We're so used to numbers in decimal, <em>base 10</em>, we didn't notice. Yet we all learned that rational numbers consist of digits that settle into a repeating sequence, a <em>repeating pattern of turns</em>. Disallowing finite paths works the same, even in decimal: the number $ 0.95 $ can be written as $\, 0.94999…\, $, i.e. <em>take one final step in one direction, followed by infinitely many steps the other way</em>.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra"> $$ \frac{4}{5} = \class{blue}{0}.\class{green}{11}\class{blue}{00}\hspace{2pt}\class{green}{11}\class{blue}{00}…_2 $$ </div> <p class="math"> When we write down a number digit by digit, we're really <em>following the path to it</em> in a graph like this, dialing the number's … er … number. The rationals aren't <em>shaped</em> like a binary tree, rather, they <em>look</em> like a binary tree when viewed through the lens of binary division. Every infinite binary, ternary, quinary, etc. tree is then a different but complete perspective of the same underlying thing. We don't have <em>the</em> map, we have one of infinitely many maps.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra top" data-delay=".8" data-align-y=".25"> $$ π = \class{green}{11}.\class{blue}{00}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{00}\class{green}{1}\class{blue}{0000}\class{green}{1}…_2 $$ </div> <p class="math"> Which means we can show this graph is actually an interdimensional number portal.<br /> See, we already know <em>where</em> the missing numbers are. Irrational numbers like $ π $ form a never-repeating sequence of digits. If we want to reach $ π $, we find it's at the end of an infinite path whose turns <em>do not repeat</em>. By allowing such paths, our map leads us straight to them. Even though it's made out of only <em>one kind of rational number</em>: division by two.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra" data-delay="1.6"><big><big> $$ π = \mathop{\class{no-outline}{►\hspace{-2pt}►}}_{\infty\hspace{2pt}} x_n \,? $$ </big></big> </div> <p class="math"> So now we've invented <em>real numbers</em>. How do we visualize this invention? And where does continuity come in? What we need is a procedure that generates such a non-repeating path <em>when taken to the limit</em>. Then we can figure out where the behavior at infinity comes from. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>Because the path never settles into a pattern, we can't pin it down with a single neat triangle like before. We try something else. At every step, we can see that the <em>smallest</em> number we can still reach is found by <span class="orangered">always going left</span>. Similarly, the <em>largest</em> available number is found by <span class="green">always going right</span>. Wherever we go from here, it will be somewhere in this range.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p>We can set up shrinking intervals by placing such triangles along the path, forming a nested sequence.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra left"> $$ \begin{align} 3 \leq & π \leq 4 \\ 3.1 \leq & π \leq 3.2 \\ 3.14 \leq & π \leq 3.15 \\ 3.141 \leq & π \leq 3.142 \\ 3.1415 \leq & π \leq 3.1416 \\ 3.14159 \leq & π \leq 3.14160 \\ \end{align} $$ </div> <div class="extra right"> $$ \begin{align} 11_2 \leq & π \leq 100_2 \\ 11.0_2 \leq & π \leq 11.1_2 \\ 11.00_2 \leq & π \leq 11.01_2 \\ 11.001_2 \leq & π \leq 11.010_2 \\ 11.0010_2 \leq & π \leq 11.0011_2 \\ 11.00100_2 \leq & π \leq 11.00101_2 \\ \end{align} $$ </div> <p class="math"> What we've actually done is rounded up and down at every step, to find an upper and lower bound with a certain amount of digits. This works in any number base. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">Let's examine these intervals by themselves. We can see that due to the binary nature, each interval covers either the left or right side of its ancestor. Because our graph goes on forever, there are infinitely many nested intervals. This <em>tower of $ π $</em> never ends and never repeats itself, we just squeezed it into a finite space so we could see it better.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If we instead approach a rational number like $ \frac{10}{3} = 3.333…\, $ then the tower starts repeating itself at some point. Note that the intervals <em>don't slide smoothly</em>. Each can only be in one of two places relative to its ancestor.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">In order to reach a different rational number, like $ 3.999… = 4 $, we have to establish a different repeating pattern. So we have to rearrange infinitely many levels of the tower all at once, from one configuration to another. This reinforces the notion that rational numbers are not continuous.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If the tower converges to a number, then the top must be infinitely thin, i.e. $ 0 $ units wide. That would suggest it's meaningless to say what the interval at infinity looks like, because it stops existing. Let's try it anyway.</p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> There is only one question to answer: does the interval cover the <span class="orangered">left side</span>, or the <span class="green">right</span>? </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> Oddly enough, in this specific case of $ 3.999…\, $ there is an answer. The tower <em>leans to the right</em>. Therefor, the state of the interval is the same all the way up. If we take the limit, it converges and the <em>final interval</em> goes right. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> But we can immediately see that we can build a second tower that leans left, which converges on the same number. We could distinguish between the two by writing it as $ 4.000…\, $ In this case the <em>final interval</em> goes left. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> If we approach $ 10/3 $, we take a path of <em>alternating left and right steps</em>. The state of the interval at infinity becomes like our paradoxical lamp from before: it has to be both left and right, and therefor it is neither, it's simply undefined. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> The same applies to irrational numbers like $ π $. Because the sequence of turns never repeats itself, the interval flips arbitrarily between left and right forever, therefor it is in an undefined state at the end. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> But there's another way to look at this.<br /> If the interval converges to the number $ π $, then the two sequences of respectively <span class="orangered">lower</span> and <span class="green">upper bounds</span> also converge to $ π $ individually. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> Remember how we derived our bounds: we rounded down by always taking <span class="orangered">lefts</span> and rounded up by always taking <span class="green">rights</span>. The shape of the tower depends on the specific path you're taking, not just the number you reach at the end. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> That means we're approaching the <span class="orangered">lower bounds</span> so they all end in $ 0000… \, $ Their towers always lean left. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math">If we then take the <em>limit of their final intervals</em> as we approach $ π $, that goes <span class="orangered">left</span> too. Note that this is a double limit: first we find the <em>limit of the intervals</em> of each tower individually, then we take the <em>limit over all the towers as we approach $ π $</em>. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> For the same reason, we can think of all the <span class="green">upper bounds</span> as ending in $ 1111 …\, $ Their towers always lean right. When we take the limit of their final intervals and approach $ π $, we find it points <span class="green">right</span>. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> But, we could actually just reverse the rounding for the upper and lower bounds, and end up with the exact opposite situation. Therefor it doesn't mean that we've invented a <span class="orangered">red $ π $</span> to the left and <span class="green">green $ π $</span> to the right which are somehow different. $ π $ is $ π $. This only says something about our procedure of building towers. It matters because the towers is how we're trying to reach a real number in the first place. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> See, our tower still represents a binary number of infinitely many bits. Every interval can still only be in one of two places. To run along the real number line, we'd have to rearrange infinitely many levels of the tower all at once to create motion. That still does not seem continuous. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p> We can resolve this if we picture the final interval of each tower as a <em>bit at infinity</em>. If we flip the bit at infinity, we swap between two equivalent ways of reaching a number, so this has no effect on the resulting number. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> In doing so, we're actually imagining that every real number is a rational number whose <em>non-repeating head</em> has grown infinitely big. Its <em>repeating tail</em> has been pushed out all the way past infinity. That means we can flip the repeating part of our tower between different configurations without creating any changes in the number it leads to. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <p class="math"> That helps a little bit with the intuition: if the tower keeps working <em>all the way up there</em>, it must be continuous at its actual tip, wherever that really is. A <em>continuum</em> is then what happens when the smallest possible step you can take isn't just as small as you want. It's so small that it no longer makes <em>any</em> noticeable difference. While that's not a very mathematical definition, I find it very helpful in trying to imagine how this might work. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra bottom" data-delay="1.6" data-align-y=".15"> $ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, … $ </div> <p class="math"> Finally, we might wonder how many of each type of number there are.<br />The natural numbers are <em>countably infinite</em>: there is a procedure of steps which, in the limit, counts all of them. Just start at the beginning, and fast-forward. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra bottom" data-align-y=".15"> $$ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, … $$ <br /><br /><br /><br /> </div> <div class="extra bottom" data-delay=".4" data-align-y=".15"> <br /><br /> $$ \class{orangered}{2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, …} $$ <br /><br /> </div> <div class="extra bottom" data-delay=".8" data-align-y=".15"> <br /><br /><br /><br /> $$ \class{green}{0, 1, -1, 2, -2, 3, …} $$ </div> <p class="math"> We can find a similar sequence for the <span class="orangered">even natural numbers</span> by multiplying each number by two. We can also alternate between a positive and negative sequence to count <span class="green">the integers</span>. We can match up the elements one-to-one, which means all three sequences are <em>equally long</em>. They're all countably infinite.<br />There are as many even positives as positives. Which is exactly as many as all the integers combined. As counter-intuitive as it is, it is the only consistent answer. </p> </div> <div class="step"> <div class="extra bottom right" style="background-image: url(/files/infinity-and-beyond/rationals.png); background-size: 100%; background-position: 0 0; background-repeat: no-repeat;" data-align-x=".2" data-align-y=".5"><small><small> $$ \begin{array}{cccccccc} 1 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} 2 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} 3 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} 4 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} 5 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} 6 \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} … \\[6pt] \frac{1}{2} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{2}{2}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{3}{2} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{4}{2}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{5}{2} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{6}{2}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \\[3pt] \frac{1}{3} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{2}{3} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{3}{3}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{4}{3} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{5}{3} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{6}{3}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \cdots \\[3pt] \frac{1}{4} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{2}{4}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{3}{4} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{4}{4}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{5}{4} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{6}{4}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \\[3pt] \frac{1}{5} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{2}{5} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{3}{5} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{4}{5} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{5}{5}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{6}{5} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \\[3pt] \frac{1}{6} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{2}{6}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{3}{6}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{4}{6}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \frac{5}{6} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{grey}{\frac{6}{6}} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \\[3pt] \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \vdots \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \vdots \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \hspace{2pt}&\hspace{2pt} \class{white}{\ddots} \end{array} $$ </small></small> </div> <p class="math"> But we can take it one step further: we can find such a sequence for the rational numbers too, by laying out all the fractions on a grid. We can follow diagonals up and down and pass through every single one. If we eliminate duplicates like $ 1 = 2/2 = 3/3 $ and alternate positives and negatives, we can 'count them all'. So there are as many fractions as there are natural numbers. <em>"Deal with it"</em>, says Infinity, donning its sunglasses. <p> </div>

```
<div class="step">
<div class="extra">
$$
\begin{array}{c}
0.\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
0.\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}1\hspace{1pt}0\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1}\hspace{1pt}…_2 \\
… \\
\\
0.\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1}\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0\hspace{1pt}0}\hspace{1pt}\class{green}{1\hspace{1pt}1}\hspace{1pt}\class{blue}{0}\hspace{1pt}…_2
\end{array}
$$
</div>
<p class="math">
The real numbers on the other hand are <em>uncountably infinite</em>: no process can list them all in the limit. The basic proof is short: suppose we did have a sequence of all the real numbers between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $ in some order. We could then build a new number by taking <span class="green">all</span> <span class="blue">the</span> <span class="green">bits</span> <span class="green">on</span> <span class="blue">the</span> <span class="blue">diagonal</span>, and flipping zeroes and ones.<br>That means this number is different from every listed number in at least one digit, so it's <em>not on the list</em>. But it's also between $ 0 $ and $ 1 $, so it should be on the list. Therefor, <em>the list can't exist</em>.
</p>
</div>
<div class="step">
<p class="math">
This even matches our intuitive explanation from earlier. There are so many real numbers, that we had to invent a bit at infinity to try and count them, and find something that would <em>tick at least once</em> for every real number. Even then we couldn't say whether it was $ 0 $ or $ 1 $ anywhere in particular, because it literally depends on how you approach it.
</p>
</div>
```

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What we just did was a careful exercise in hiding the obvious, namely the digit-based number systems we are all familiar with. By viewing them not as digits, but as paths on a directed graph, we get a new perspective on just what it means to use them. We've also seen how this means we can construct the rationals and reals using the least possible ingredients required: division by two, and limits.

In school, we generally work with the decimal representation of numbers. As a result, the popular image of mathematics is that it's the science of *digits*, not the underlying structures they represent. This permanently skews our perception of what numbers really are, and is easy to demonstrate. You can google to find countless arguments of why $ 0.999… $ is or isn't equal to $ 1 $. Yet nobody's wondering why $ 0.000… = 0 $, though it's practically the same problem: $ 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, … $

Furthermore, in decimal notation, rational numbers and real numbers look incredibly alike: $ 3.3333… $ vs $ 3.1415…\, $ The question of what it actually means to have infinitely many non-repeating digits, and why this results in continuous numbers, is hidden away in those 3 dots at the end. By imagining $ π $ as $ 3.1415…0000… $ or $ 3.1415…1111… $ we can intuitively bridge the gap to the infinitely small. We see how the distance between two neighbouring real numbers must be so small, that it really is equivalent to $ 0 $.

That's not as crazy as it sounds. In the field of *hyperreal numbers*, every number actually has additional digits 'past infinity': that's its infinitesimal part. You can imagine this to be a multiple of $ \frac{1}{\infty} $, an infinitely small unit greater than $ 0 $, which I'll call $ ε $. You can add $ ε $ to a real number to take an infinitely small step. It represents a difference that can only be revealed with an infinitely strong microscope. Equality is replaced with *adequality*: being equal aside from an infinitely small difference.

You can explore this hyperreal number line below.

As $ ε $ is a fully functioning hyperreal number, $ ε^2 $ is also infinitesimal. In fact, it's even infinitely smaller than $ ε $, and we can keep doing this for $ ε^3, ε^4, …\,$ To make matters worse, if $ ε $ is infinitesimal, then $ \frac{1}{ε} $ must be infinitely big, and $ \frac{1}{ε^2} $ infinitely bigger than that. So hyperreal numbers don't just have inwardly nested infinitesimal levels, but outward levels of increasing infinity too. They have infinitely many dimensions of infinity both ways.

So it's perfectly possible to say that $ 0.999… $ does not equal $ 1 $, if you mean they differ by an infinitely small amount. The only problem is that in doing so, you get much, *much* more than you bargained for.

That means we can finally answer the question we started out with: why did our continuous atoms seemingly all have $ 0 $ mass, when the total mass was not $ 0 $? The answer is that the mass per atom was *infinitesimal*. So was each atom's volume. The density, *mass per volume*, was the result of dividing one infinitesimal amount by another, to get a normal sized number again. To create a finite mass in a finite volume, we have to add up infinitely many of these atoms.

These are the underlying principles of calculus, and the final puzzle piece to cover. The funny thing about calculus is, it's conceptually easy, especially if you start with a good example. What is hard is actually working with the formulas, because they can get hairy very quickly. Luckily, your computer will do them for you:

That was differential and integral calculus in a nutshell. We saw how many people actually spend hours every day sitting in front of an *integrator*: the odometers in their cars, which integrate speed into distance. And the derivative of speed is acceleration—i.e. how hard you're pushing on the gas pedal or brake, combined with forces like drag and friction.

By using these tools in equations, we can describe laws that relate quantities to their *rates of change*. Drag, also known as air resistance, is a force which gets stronger the faster you go. This is a relationship between the first and second derivatives of position.

In fact, the relaxation procedure we applied to our track is equivalent to another physical phenomenon. If the curve of the coaster represented the temperature along a thin metal rod, then the heat would start to equalize itself in exactly that fashion. Temperature wants to be smooth, eventually averaging out completely into a flat curve.

Whether it's heat distribution, fluid dynamics, wave propagation or a head bobbing in a roller coaster, all of these problems can be naturally expressed as so called *differential equations*. Solving them is a skill learned over many years, and some solutions come in the form of infinite series. Again, infinity shows up, ever the uninvited guest at the dinner table.

Infinity is a many splendored thing but it does not lift us up where we belong. It boggles our mind with its implications, yet is absolutely essential in math, engineering and science. It grants us the ability to see the impossible and build new ideas within it. That way, we can solve intractable problems and understand the world better.

What a shame then that in pop culture, it only lives as a caricature. Conversations about infinity occupy a certain sphere of it—Pink Floyd has been playing on repeat, and there's usually someone peddling crystals and incense nearby.

*"Man, have you ever, like, tried to imagine infinity…?"* they mumble, staring off into the distance.

"Funny story, actually. We just came from there…"

*Comments, feedback and corrections are welcome on Google Plus. Diagrams powered by MathBox.*

*More like this: How to Fold a Julia Fractal.*

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"Take the universe and grind it down to the finest powder and sieve it through the finest sieve and then show me one atom of justice, one molecule of mercy. And yet," Death waved a hand, "And yet you act as if there is some ideal order in the world, as if there is some… some rightness in the universe by which it may be judged."– The Hogfather, Discworld, Terry Pratchett

Mathematics has a dirty little secret. Okay, so maybe it's not so dirty. But neither is it little. It goes as follows:

*Everything in mathematics is a choice.*

You'd think otherwise, going through the modern day mathematics curriculum. Each theorem and proof is provided, each formula bundled with convenient exercises to apply it to. A long ladder of subjects is set out before you, and you're told to climb, climb, climb, with the promise of a payoff at the end. "You'll need this stuff in real life!", they say, oblivious to the enormity of this lie, to the fact that most of the educated population walks around with *"vague memories of math class and clear memories of hating it."*

Rarely is it made obvious that all of these things are entirely optional—that mathematics is the art of making choices so you can discover what the consequences are. That algebra, calculus, geometry are just words we invented to group the most interesting choices together, to identify the most useful tools that came out of them. The act of mathematics is to play around, to put together ideas and see whether they go well together. Unfortunately that exploration is mostly absent from math class and we are fed pre-packaged, pre-digested math pulp instead.

And so it also goes with the numbers. We learn about the natural numbers, the integers, the fractions and eventually the real numbers. At each step, we feel hoodwinked: we were only shown a part of the puzzle! As it turned out, there was a 'better' set of numbers waiting to be discovered, more comprehensive than the last.

Along the way, we feel like our intuition is mostly preserved. Negative numbers help us settle debts, fractions help us divide pies fairly, and real numbers help us measure diagonals and draw circles. But then there's a break. If you manage to get far enough, you'll learn about something called the *imaginary numbers*, where it seems sanity is thrown out the window in a variety of ways. Negative numbers can have square roots, you can no longer say whether one number is bigger than the other, and the whole thing starts to look like a pointless exercise for people with far too much time on their hands.

I blame it on the name. It's misleading for one very simple reason: all numbers are imaginary. You cannot point to anything in the world and say, "This is a 3, and that is a 5." You can point to three apples, five trees, or chalk symbols that represent 3 and 5, but the concepts of 3 and 5, the numbers themselves, exist only in our heads. It's only because we are taught them at such a young age that we rarely notice.

So when mathematicians finally encountered numbers that acted just a little bit different, they couldn't help but call them *fictitious* and *imaginary*, setting the wrong tone for generations to follow. Expectations got in the way of seeing what was truly there, and it took decades before the results were properly understood.

Now, this is not some esoteric point about a mathematical curiosity. These imaginary numbers—called *complex numbers* when combined with our ordinary real numbers—are essential to quantum physics, electromagnetism, and many more fields. They are naturally suited to describe anything that turns, waves, ripples, combines or interferes, with itself or with others. But it was also their unique structure that allowed Benoit Mandelbrot to create his stunning fractals in the late 70s, dazzling every math enthusiast that saw them.

Yet for the most part, complex numbers are treated as an inconvenience. Because they are inherently multi-dimensional, they defy our attempts to visualize them easily. Graphs describing complex math are usually simplified schematics that only hint at what's going on underneath. Because our brains don't do more than 3D natively, we can glimpse only slices of the hyperspaces necessary to put them on full display. But it's not impossible to peek behind the curtain, and we can gain some unique insights in doing so. All it takes is a willingness to imagine something different.

So that's what this is about. And a lesson to be remembered: complex numbers are typically the first kind of numbers we see that are undeniably strange. Rather than seeing a sign that says *Here Be Dragons, Abandon All Hope*, we should explore and enjoy the fascinating result that comes from one very simple choice: *letting our numbers turn*. That said, there *are* dragons. Very pretty ones in fact.

What does it mean to let numbers turn? Well, when making mathematical choices, we have to be careful. You could declare that $ 1 + 1 $ should equal $ 3 $, but that only opens up more questions. Does $ 1 + 1 + 1 $ equal $ 4 $ or $ 5 $ or $ 6 $? Can you even do meaningful arithmetic this way? If not, what good are these modified numbers? The most important thing is that our rules need to be consistent for them to work. But if all we do is swap out the *symbols* for $ 2 $ and $ 3 $, we didn't actually change anything in the underlying mathematics at all.

So we're looking for choices that don't interfere with what already works, but add something new. Just like the negative numbers complemented the positives, and the fractions snugly filled the space between them—and the reals somehow fit in between *that*—we need to go look for new numbers where there currently aren't any.

We've seen how complex numbers are arrows that like to turn, which can be made to behave like numbers: we can add and multiply them, because we can come up with a consistent rule for doing so. We've also seen what powers of complex numbers look like: we fold or unfold the entire plane by multiplying or dividing angles, while simultaneously applying a power to the lengths.

With a basic grasp of what complex numbers are and how they move, we can start making Julia fractals.

At their heart lies the following function:

$$ f(z) = z^2 + c $$

This says: map the complex number $ z $ onto its square, and then add a constant number to it. To generate a Julia fractal, we have to apply this formula repeatedly, feeding the result back into $ f $ every time.

$$ z_{n+1} = (z_n)^2 + c $$

We want to examine how $ z_n $ changes when we plug in different starting values for $ z_1 $ and iterate $ n $ times. So let's try that and see what happens.

Making fractals is probably the least useful application of complex math, but it's an undeniably fascinating one. It also reveals the unique properties of complex operations, like conformal mapping, which provide a certain rigidity to the result.

However, in order to make complex math practical, we have to figure out how to tie it back to the real world.

It's a good thing we don't have to look far to do so. Whenever we're describing wavelike phenomena, whether it's sound, electricity or subatomic particles, we're also interested in how the wave evolves and changes. Complex operations are eminently suited for this, because they naturally take place on circles. Numbers that oppose can cancel out, numbers in the same direction will amplify each other, just like two waves do when they meet. And by folding or unfolding, we can alter the frequency of a pattern, doubling it, halving it, or anything in between.

More complicated operations are used for example to model electromagnetic waves, whether they are FM radio, wifi packets or ADSL streams. This requires precise control of the frequencies you're generating and receiving. Doing it without complex numbers, well, it just sucks. So why use boring real numbers, when complex numbers can do the work for you?

In visualizing complex waves, we've seen functions that map real numbers to complex numbers, and back again. These can be graphed easily in 3D diagrams, from $ \mathbb{R} $ to $ \mathbb{C} $ or vice-versa. You cross 1 real dimension with the 2 dimensions of the complex plane.

But complex operations in general work from $ \mathbb{C} $ to $ \mathbb{C} $. To view these, unfortunately you need four-dimensional eyes, which nature has yet to provide. There are ways to project these graphs down to 3D that still somewhat make sense, but it never stops being a challenge to interpret them.

For every mathematical concept that we have a built-in intuition for, there are countless more we can't picture easily. That's the curse of mathematics, yet at the same time, also its charm.

Hence, I tried to stick to the stuff that is (somewhat!) easy to picture. If there's interest, a future post could cover topics like: the nature of $ e^{ix} $, Fourier transforms, some actual quantum mechanics, etc.

For now, this story is over. I hope I managed to spark some light bulbs here and there, and that you enjoyed reading it as much as I did making it.

Comments, feedback and corrections are welcome on Google Plus. Diagrams powered by MathBox.

*More like this: To Infinity… And Beyond!.*

*For extra credit: check out these great stirring visualizations of Julia and Mandelbrot sets. I incorporated a similar graphic above. Hat tip to Tim Hutton for pointing these out. And for some actual paper mathematical origami, check out Vihart's latest video on Snowflakes, Starflakes and Swirlflakes.*

For most of my life, I've found math to be a visual experience. My math scores went from crap to great once I started playing with graphics code, found some demoscene tutorials, and realized I could reason about formulas by picturing the graphs they create. I could apply operators by learning how they morph, shift, turn and fold those graphs and create symmetries. I could remember equations and formulas more easily when I could layer on top the visual relationships they embody. I was less likely to make mistakes when I could augment the boring symbolic manipulation with a mental set of visual cross-checks.

So, when tasked with holding a conference talk on how to make things out of math at Full Frontal—later redone at Web Directions Code—I knew the resulting presentation would have to consist of intricate visualizations as the main draw, with whatever I had to say as mere glue to hold it together.

The problem was, I didn't know of a good tool to do so, and creating animations by hand would probably be too time consuming. With the writings of Paul Lockhart and Bret Victor firmly in mind, I also knew I wanted to start blogging more about mathematical concepts in a non-traditional way, showing the principles of calculus, analysis and algebra the way I learnt to see them in my head, rather than through the obscure symbols served up in engineering school.

So I set out to create that tool, keeping in mind the most important lesson I've picked up as a web developer: one cannot overstate the value in being able to send someone a link and have it just work, right there. It was obvious it would have to be browser-based.

Now, when people think of graphs in a browser, the natural thought is vector graphics and SVG, which quickly leads to visualization powerhouse d3.js. It really is an amazing piece of tech with a vast library of useful code to accompany it. When I wrapped my head around how d3's enter/exit selections are implemented and how little it actually does to achieve so much, I was blown away. It's just so elegant and simple.

Unfortunately, d3's core is intricately tied to the DOM through SVG and CSS. And that means ironically that d3 is not really capable of 3D. Additionally, d3 is a power tool that makes no assumptions: it is up to you to choose which visual elements and techniques to use to make your diagrams, and as such it is more like assembly language for graphs than a drop-in tool. These two were show stoppers.

For one, manually designing layouts, grids, axes, etc. every time is tedious. You should be able to drop in a mathematical expression with as little fanfare as possible and have it come out looking right. This includes sane defaults for transitions and animations.

For another, I've found that, when in doubt, adding an extra dimension always helps. The moment I finally realized that every implicit graph in N dimensions is really just a slice of an explicit one in N+1 dimensions, a ridiculous amount of things clicked together. And it took until years after studying signal processing to at long last discover the 4D picture of complex exponentiation that tied the entire thing together (projected into 3D below): it revealed the famous "magic formula" involving e, i and π to be a meaningless symbological distraction, a pinhole view of a much larger, much more beautiful structure, underpinning every Fourier and Z transform I'd ever encountered.

So, WebGL it was, because I needed 3D. Unfortunately that meant the promise of having it just work everywhere was tempered by a lack of browser support, but I would certainly hope that's something we can overcome sooner than later. Dear Apple and Microsoft: get your shit together already. Dear Firefox and Opera: your WebGL performance could be a lot better.

These days I don't really touch WebGL without going through Three.js first. Three.js is a wonderful, mature engine that contains tons of useful high-level components. At the same time, it also does a great job in just handling the boilerplate of WebGL while not getting in the way of doing some heavy lifting yourself.

Rendering vector-style graphics with WebGL is not hard, certainly easier than photorealistic 3D. Primitives like lines and points are sized in absolute pixels by default, and with hardware multisampling for anti-aliasing, you get somewhat decent image quality out of it. Though, as is typical for a Web API, we're treated like children and can only cross our fingers and *request* anti-aliasing politely, hoping it will be available. Meanwhile native developers have full control over speed and quality and can adjust their strategy to the specific hardware's capabilities. The more things change... And then Chrome decided to disable anti-aliasing altogether due to esoteric security issues with buggy drivers. Bah.

Now, when rendering with WebGL, you really have two options. One is to just treat it as a dumb output layer, loading or generating all your geometry in JavaScript and rendering it directly in 3D. With the speed of JS engines today, this can get you pretty far.

The second option is to leverage the GPU's own capabilities as much as possible, doing computations in GLSL through so-called vertex and fragment shader programs. These are run for every vertex in a mesh, every pixel being drawn, and have been the main force driving innovation in real-time graphics for the past decade. With the goal of butter-smooth 60fps graphical goodness, this seemed like the better choice.

Unfortunately, GLSL shaders are rather monolithic things. While you do have the ability to create subroutines, every shader still has to be a stand-alone program with its own main() function. This means you either need to include a shader for every possible combination of operations, or generate shader code dynamically by concatenating pre-made snippets or using #ifdef switches to knock them out. This is the approach taken by Three.js, which results in some very hairy code that is neither easy to read nor easy to maintain.

Having made a prototype, I knew I wanted to show continuous transitions between various coordinate systems (e.g. polar and spherical), knew I needed to render shaded and unshaded geometry, and knew I would need to slot in specific snippets for things like point sprites, bezier curves/surfaces, dynamic tick marks, and more. Sorting this all out Three.js-style would be a nightmare.

So I wrote a library to solve that problem, called ShaderGraph.js. It is best described as a smart code-concatenator, a few steps short of writing a full blown compiler. You feed it snippets of GLSL code, each with one or more inputs and outputs, and these get parsed and turned into lego-like building blocks. Each input/output becomes an outlet, and outlets are wired up in a typical dataflow style. Given a graph of connected snippets, it can be compiled back into a program by assembling the subroutines, assigning intermediate variables and constructing an appropriate main() function to invoke them. It also exports a list of all external variables, i.e. GLSL uniforms and attributes, so you can control the program's behavior easily.

If I'd stopped there however, I'd have just replaced the act of manual code writing with that of manually wiring graphs. So I applied the principle of convention-over-configuration instead: you tell ShaderGraph to connect two snippets, and it will automatically match up outlets by name and type. This is augmented by a chainable factory API, which allows you to pass a partially built graph around. It allows different classes to work together to build shaders, each inserting their own snippets into the processing chain.

For example, to render a Bezier surface, the vertex shader is composed of: cubic interpolation, viewport transform (position + tangents), normal calculation and lighting. When transforming to e.g. a polar viewport, the surface normals are seamlessly recalculated. It really works like magic and I can't wait to use this in my next WebGL projects.

At its core, Three.js matches pretty directly with WebGL. You can insert objects such as a Mesh, Line or ParticleSystem into your scene, which invokes a specific GL drawing command with high efficiency. As such, I certainly didn't want to reinvent the wheel.

Hence, MathBox is set up as a sort of scene-manager-within-a-scene-manager. It's a little sandbox that speaks the language of math, allowing you to insert various *primitives* like curves, vectors, axes and grids. Each of these primitives then instantiates one or more *renderables*, which simply wrap a native Three.js object and its associated ShaderGraph material. Thus, once instantiated, MathBox gets out of the way and Three.js does the heavy lifting as normal. You can even insert multiple mathboxen into a Three.js scene if you like, mixed in with other objects.

For example, a vector primitive is rendered as an arrow: it consists of a shaft and an arrowhead, realized as a line segment and a cone. An axis primitive is an arrow as well, but it also has tick marks (specially transformed line segments), and is positioned implicitly just by specifying the axis' direction rather than a start and end point.

To render curves and surfaces, you can either specify an array of data points or a live expression to be evaluated at every point. This turned out to be essential for the kinds of intricate visualizations I wanted to show, my slides being driven by timed clocks, shared arrays of data points, and live formulas and interpolations. I even fed in data from a physics engine, and it worked perfectly.

This is all tied together through Viewport objects, which define a specific mapping from a mathematical coordinate space into the 3D world space of Three.js. For example, the default cartesian viewport has the range [–1, 1] in the X, Y and Z directions. Altering the viewport's extents will shift and scale anything rendered within, as well as reflow grids and tick marks on each axis.

There are two more sophisticated viewport types, polar and spherical, which each apply the relevant coordinate transform, and can transition smoothly to and from cartesian. More viewport types can be added, all that is required is to define an appropriate transformation in JavaScript and GLSL. That said, defining a seamless transition to and from cartesian space is not always easy, particularly if you want to preserve the aspect-ratio through the entire process.

Finally, I had to tackle the problem of animation, keeping in mind a tip I learnt from the ever so mindbending Vihart: "If I can draw the point of a sentence, I don't actually need to say the sentence." This applies doubly so for animation: every time you replace a "before" and "after" with a smooth transition, your audience implicitly understands the change rather than having to go look for it.

Hence, each primitive can be fully animated. Each has a set of options (controlling behavior) and styles (controlling GLSL shaders), and there is a universal animator that can interpolate between arbitrary data types in a smart fashion.

For example, given a viewport with the XYZ range [[–1, 1], [–1, 1], [–1, 1]], you can tell it to animate to [[0, 2], [0, 1], [–3, 3]], and it just works. The animator will recursively animate each subarray's elements, and any dependent objects like grids and axes will reflow to match the intermediate values. This works for colors, vectors and matrices too. In case of live curves with custom expressions, the animator will invoke both the old and the new, and interpolate between the results.

However, executing animations manually in code is tedious, particularly in a presentation, where you want to be able to step forward and backward. So I added a Director class whose job it is to coordinate things. All you do is feed it a script of steps (add this object, animate that object). Then, as it applies them, it remembers the previous state of each object and generates an automatic rollback script. It also contains logic to detect rapid navigation, and will hurry up animations appropriately. This avoids that agonizing situation of watching someone skip through their slide deck, playing the same cheesy PowerPoint transitions over and over again.

With MathBox's core working, it was time to build my slides for the conference. After a quick survey, I quickly settled on deck.js as an HTML5 slidedeck solution that was clean and flexible enough for my purposes. However, while MathBox can be spawned inside any DOM element, it wouldn't work to insert a dozen live WebGL canvases into the presentation. The entire thing would grind to a halt or at least become very choppy.

So instead, I integrated each MathBox graphic as an IFRAME, and added some logic that only loads each IFRAME one slide before it's needed, and unloads it one slide after it's gone off screen. To sync up with the main presentation, all deck.js navigation events were forwarded into each active IFRAME using *window.postMessage*. With the MathBox Director running inside, this was very easy to do, and meant that I could skip around freely during the talk, without any worries of desynchronization between MathBox and the associated HTML5 overlays.

In fact, I applied a similar principle to this post. To avoid rendering all diagrams simultaneously and spinning up laptop fans more than necessary, each MathBox IFRAME is started as it scrolls into view and stopped once it's gone.

I've also found that having a handheld clicker makes a huge difference while speaking—as it allows you to gesture freely and move around. So, I grabbed the infrared remote code from VLC and built a simple bridge from to Cocoa to Node.js to WebSocket to allow the remote to work in a browser. It's a shame Apple's decided to discontinue IR ports on their laptops. I guess I'll have to come up with a BlueTooth-based solution when I upgrade my hardware.

In its current state, MathBox is still a bit rough. The selection of primitives and viewports is limited, and only includes the ones I needed for my presentation. That said, it is obvious you can already do quite a lot with it, and I couldn't have been happier to hear that all this effort had the desired response at the conference. I wasn't 100% sure whether other people would have the same a-ha moments that I've had, but I'm convinced more than ever that seeing math in motion is essential for honing our intuition about it. MathBox not only makes animated diagrams much easier to make and share, but it also opens the door to making them interactive in the future.

I plan to continue to evolve MathBox as needed by using it on this site and addressing gaps that come up, though I've already identified a couple of sore points:

- I used tQuery as a boilerplate and because I liked the idea of having a chainable API for this. However, this also means it's currently running off an outdated version of Three.js. I need to look into updating and/or dropping tQuery.

MathBox has been updated to Three.js r53. - Numeric or text labels are completely unsupported. It should be possible to use my CSS3D renderer for Three.js to layer on beautifully typeset MathJax formulas, positioning them correctly in 3D on top of the WebGL render.

I've added labeling for axes. I've integrated MathJax, but it's tricky because the typesetting is painfully slow in the middle of a 60fps render. But it's automatically used if MathJax is present. - All styles have to be specified on a per-object basis. Some form of stylesheet, default styles or class mechanism to allow re-use seems like an obvious next step.
- There are undoubtedly memory leaks, as I was focused first and foremost on getting it to work.
- Expressions that don't change frame-to-frame are still continuously re-evaluated, which is wasteful. There is a
`live: false`

flag you can set on objects, but it triggers a few bugs here and there. - There needs to be a predictable, built-in way of running a clock per slide to sync custom expressions off of. In my presentation I used a hack of clocks that start once first invoked, but this lacks repeatability.

I added a`director.clock()`

method that gives you a clock per slide.

Finally, it doesn't take much imagination to imagine a MathBox Editor that would allow you to build diagrams visually rather than having to use code like I did. However, that's a can of worms I'm not going to open by myself, especially because the API is already quite straightforward to use, and the library itself is still a bit in flux. Perhaps this could be done as an extension of the Three.js editor.

You can see what MathBox is really capable of in the conference video. I invite you to play around with MathBox and see what you can make it do. Contributions are welcome, and the architecture is modular enough to allow its functionality to grow for quite some time.